Sunday, August 25, 2013

Black Holes and Black Hole Physics

Though QGD predicts the existence of structures which exerts such gravitational pull that photons cannot escape. But contrary to the classical black holes predicted by relativity, the black holes predicted by quantum-geometry dynamics are not singularities. The QGD exclusion principle which states that a preon(-) cannot be occupied by more than one preon(+) implies that quantum-geometrical space imposes a limit to the density any structure can have. The density of black holes is also limited by the fact that preons(+), being strictly kinetic, they must have enough space to keep in motion. It follows that black must have very large yet finite densities.

Angle between the Rotation Axis and the Magnetic Axis

The effect of the helical motions of the electrons in direction of the rotation of a body adds up so that, at a large scale, the body behaves as a single large electron which though helical trajectory around the body interacts with the neighbouring preonic region to generated a magnetic field.

Since the magnetic field is the result of the polarization of free preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} along the loops of the helical trajectory, and since the inclination of these loops increase with the rotation speed, so does the angle between these loops and the axis of rotation increases. It follows that the angle between the axis of rotation and the magnetic axis for bodies of given material composition is proportional to the speed of rotation about its axis and its diameter.

This angle between the axis of rotation and the magnetic axis is small for slowly rotating bodies but can never be so small that the axes coincide. From the above, it also follows that a faster rotation not only implies a larger the angle between the rotation axis and the magnetic axis is, but also a flattening of the magnetic field and an increase in its intensity.

The Inner Structure of Black Holes

To understand the structure of a black hole we will look at what happens to a photon when it is captured by it the gravitational pull.

The model for light refraction that we introduced in earlier articles can be applied directly to photon moving through a black hole. Since we assume that the black hole is extremely massive, its trajectory will bring it towards the center of the black hole.

When moving along the magnetic axis of the black hole, the component preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} of the preo{{n}^{\left( + \right)}} pairs of the photon are pulled away from each other, splitting the photon into free preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} which may or not recombine into neutrinos. This works as follow:

As we have seen earlier in this book, the force binding the preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} of a preo{{n}^{\left( + \right)}} pairs is gravitational. The QGD gravitational interaction between particles at the fundamental scale is G\left( a;b \right)={{m}_{a}}{{m}_{b}}\left( k-\frac{{{d}^{2}}+d}{2} \right) , and since a and b are preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} , {{m}_{a}}={{m}_{b}}=1 and since d=1 , the binding force between two preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} of a preo{{n}^{\left( + \right)}} pair is equal to k-1 .

For a photon moving along the magnetic axis, we have and \displaystyle G\left( p_{1}^{\left\langle + \right\rangle };{{{{R}'}}_{2}} \right)-G\left( p_{1}^{\left\langle + \right\rangle };{{{{R}'}}_{1}} \right)>k-1 where \displaystyle p_{1}^{\left\langle + \right\rangle } and \displaystyle p_{2}^{\left\langle + \right\rangle } are the component preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} of a preo{{n}^{\left( + \right)}} pair of a photon.

The regions {{R}_{1}} and {{R}_{2}} , on each side of the black hole axis are equally massive regions. If we call {{{R}'}_{1}} and {{{R}'}_{2}} the regions each side of \displaystyle p_{1}^{\left\langle + \right\rangle } when the photon’s trajectory is aligned with the black hole axis then {{{R}'}_{2}}>{{{R}'}_{1}} and \displaystyle G\left( p_{1}^{\left\langle + \right\rangle };{{{{R}'}}_{2}} \right)-G\left( p_{1}^{\left\langle + \right\rangle };{{{{R}'}}_{1}} \right)>k-1 . Similarly, if we call {{{R}''}_{1}} and {{{R}''}_{2}} the region on the each side \displaystyle p_{2}^{\left\langle + \right\rangle } then {{{R}''}_{1}}>{{{R}''}_{2}} and \displaystyle G\left( p_{2}^{\left\langle + \right\rangle };{{{{R}''}}_{1}} \right)-G\left( p_{2}^{\left\langle + \right\rangle };{{{{R}''}}_{2}} \right)>k-1 . So the force pulling the preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} of preo{{n}^{\left( + \right)}} pairs being greater than the force that binds them, the preo{{n}^{\left( + \right)}} pairs are split into single preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} .

How do we that the gravitational forces within a black hole are sufficiently strong to cause the photons to be broken down into preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} ? If the gravitational forces within the black hole were not enough to breakdown the photons, then photons moving along a black hole axis would escape into space making the black hole visible. Since black holes do not emit light, then the gravitational interactions must be strong enough to break photons down into preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} and neutrinos.

The image above shows how a simple two preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} photon is split into two free preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} which because of the the electro-gravitational interactions move back toward the magnetic axis. But, because the quantum-geometrical space occupied by the black holes is densely populated by particles which affect randomly the trajectories of the single preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} , our two preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} arrive at the magnetic axis of the black hole at different positions. And if they are in close enough proximity, the single preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} will combine to form a neutrino which structure, not being made of preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} pairs, remains structurally unaffected by the intense gravitational interactions within the black hole.

Once the trajectories of the preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} or the neutrino coincides with the magnetic axis of the black hole, the preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} or neutrinos will move through the center of the black hole and will exit it. Preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} and neutrinos can escape the gravitation of the black hole because gravitational interactions, though it affects the directions of preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} , doesn’t change their momentums which, as we have seen in earlier articles is fundamental and intrinsic (the momentum of a preo{{n}^{\left( + \right)}} is \left\| {\vec{c}} \right\| where \vec{c} is momentum vector of a preo{{n}^{\left( + \right)}} ).

It follows, that all matter that falls into a black hole will be similarly disintegrated into preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} and neutrinos, which will exit the black hole. The black hole will thus radiate preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} and neutrinos, in jets at both poles of their magnetic axis of rotation. Since preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} and neutrinos interact too weakly with instruments to be detected by our instruments, they are invisible to them. In order to see the preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} -neutrinos jets from a black hole, instruments may need detectors larger than our solar system. However, the jets can be observed indirectly when they interact with large amount of matter when the polarized preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} and neutrinos they contain impart it with their intrinsic momentum. It is worth noting that polarized preons and neutrinos jets, as described by QGD, would contribute to the observed dark energy effect.

Based on QGD’s model of the black hole, we can predict that the preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} /neutrino jets will form an extremely intense polarized preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} field along the magnetic axis creating the equivalent of a repulsive electromagnetic effect at both poles. The polarized preonic field would repulse all matter on their path, which may explain the shape of galaxies.

From what we have discussed in the preceding section, we can define a black hole as an object which mass is such that it can breakdown all matter, including photons, into preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} .

The QGD model of the physics of black hole has another important implication. The preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} and neutrinos resulting from the breakdown of a particle or structure are indistinguishable from the preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} or neutrinos resulting from the breakdown of any other particle or structure. This means, if QGD is correct, that all information about the original particle or structure is lost forever. That said, since this consistent from QGD’s axioms set and since, unlike quantum mechanics, QGD does not require that information be preserved, the loss of information it predicts does not lead to a paradox ( see this article for an excellent introduction to subject).

Cosmological Consequences

The mechanism of emission of preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} and neutrinos will be continue until the black hole has been completely evaporated; which it will after it has absorbed all matter in its vicinity. By this mechanism, preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} which had formed particles and structures are disintegrated into free preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} and neutrinos which are then returned to the universe.

In later phases, the free preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} and neutrinos will form new particles and structures, eventually leading to the formation cosmic structures and black holes. And later, due to gravitational interactions, these cosmic structures will ultimately be absorbed by black holes, which break down matter into preon{{s}^{\left( + \right)}} and neutrinos, repeating the cycle indefinitely.

For a more complete discussion on the subject, see relevant sections in Introduction to Quantum-Geometry Dynamics.

Particular Interpretation of Double-Slit Experiments

  Following the failure of classical physics theories to explain the interference patterns observed in double slit experiments and other lig...