Note: An Axiomatic Approach to Physics is recommended prerequisite to this article.
The following is a summary of the phases of the evolution of the universe as derived from the axiom set of quantum-geometry dynamics.
Isotropic Initial State
Initially there exists nothing but ,the only fundamental particle of matter in QGD, uniformly distributed in space, itself composed of , the discrete fundamental units of space. Both and are conserved which means that the amount of matter and the amount of space is finite and invariable.
CMBR-CNB states
At this stage of the evolution of the universe, , under the influence of gravity form photons and neutrinos, the simplest material structures predicted to exist . Note that QGD’s description of gravity predicts that gravity at the fundamental scale may be a hundred of orders of magnitude greater than Newtonian gravity. Since are distributed uniformly throughout quantum-geometrical space, the formation of photons and neutrinos is also uniform, which explains why the cosmic microwave background radiation is isotropic as must be the cosmic neutrino background.
The majority of in the universe are still unbound and would account for dark matter. They interact too weakly to be detected individually (their momentum is much smaller than even the least massive neutron) but their large quantities over large distances would interact gravitationally with stellar structures (see The Dark Matter Effect). However, according to QGD, are the particle components of magnetic fields which effect is due to their imparting their momentum.
Hydrogen Formation
Through the mechanisms of particle formation which is described in Introduction to Quantum-Geometry Dynamics, form incrementally more massive structures which would eventually form proton-electron pairs, hydrogen atoms. Note: QGD predicts that proton and electron must be formed in pairs from the progressive accumulation of bound by gravitational interactions.
Large Scale Cosmic Structure Formation
QGD’s equation of gravity,, implies that at this phase of the evolution of the universe would give rise to the formation of large structures no larger than the threshold distance at which gravity would become repulsive; that at distance such that (from observations, the current best estimate for the threshold distance is 10Mpc). Hydrogen atoms would become bound by gravity of these structures and gradually concentrated in the centers of the cosmic structures where they would form dense clouds of hydrogen which would condense through gravity to form galaxy clusters. The components of galaxies, the stars and the supermassive center must form and evolve simultaneously into the structures we observe now. Within the stars, gravity would trigger fusion of proton into larger nuclei creating incrementally heavier elements which when released in space formed clouds that would eventually form planets and planetary objects.
Black Hole Phase
Eventually, if QGD is correct, all structures of matter will collapse into black holes no closer to each other than the threshold distance at which gravity becomes repulsive. Black holes, through a mechanism we explain here, break down particles into , reseeding the universe which would eventually reach a new isotropic state and start a new cycle. Though cycles following the initial cycle would be accelerated due to the presence of black holes remaining after the first cycle which would accelerate the evolution the new cycle. Because all systems to do evolved at the same rate, cycles would overlap and leave indications as to whether or not we are in the initial cycle or one of the cycles that followed. The universe maybe much older than currently believed, so much older that its age may be counted in cycles.
Note that black holes predicted by QGD have no singularities. They have large but finite density.
Conclusion
The cosmology derived from QGD is consistent with observations and offers better explanation as to why the CMBR is isotropic and why the distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic on large scale. Also, the existence of supermassive black holes at the center of every galaxy which was not predicted by the standard model of cosmology follows naturally from QGD’s axiom set. QGD cosmology does not give rise to singularities or infinities and does not require inflation to solve the horizon problem and thus avoids all problems associated with it. QGD’s model of gravity and laws of motion are consistent with observations, hence are in agreement with observations supporting general relativity but allows for distinct predictions which set it apart. These are summarized in An Axiomatic Approach to Physics.
Standard Model Cosmology | QGD Cosmology | |
origin | Singularity | Isotropic state |
CMBR | After glow of Big Bang but inconsistent with light speed limit | 1^{st} phase of evolution, consistent with observation. Naturally follows form axiom set of QGD. |
black holes at galactic centers | Not predicted | Follows naturally from axioms |
Mechanism of evolution from initial conditions | Rapid expansion from singularity | Locally condensing universe due to gravity. No singularity |
Dark energy | ad hoc extension to explain observations | Corresponds to distances at which QGD’s gravity equation predicts gravity becomes repulsive. Follows naturally from axiom set. |
Dark matter | ad hoc extension to explain observations | Follows naturally from axiom set. |
Black holes | Imply singularities | Large but finite density imposed by discrete structure of space. No singularity |
Consistency with fundamental scale | None. Requires a distinct and incompatible theory to explain fundamental physics | Emerges naturally from fundamental physics as described by QGD |
Gravitational waves | No gravitational waves | |
n-body problem | No derivable solution | Follows naturally for QGD’s description of gravity and laws of motion. |
Horizon problem | “solved” by inflation at the price of introducing even more intractable problems | No horizon problem since initial state is isotropic |