*Note to readers: reading of part 1 is a prerequisite for a full understanding of the following*

As explained in part 1 of this article, quantum-geometry dynamics explores the consequences of space being

- Discrete
and

- emerging from the interactions between preons(-).

Preons(-), according to quantum-geometry dynamics, are fundamental particles that dimensionalize and determine the discrete nature of quantum-geometrical space which, in turn, dictates the structure of matter, itself composed of the preons(+) (the only other fundamental particle of QGD).

QGD, which follows from the axiom of discreteness of space, forces us to rethink some assumptions we have come to make about physical reality; even basic notions such as that of mass, energy, momentum come into question. As is discussed in detail in Introduction to Quantum-Geometry Dynamics, choosing the axiom of discreteness of space instead of that of continuity of space has profound consequences for all of physics. Virtually all physics theory assume that space is continuous, so it’s not surprising that a physics based on discreteness of space provides descriptions of physical systems that are radically different from continuity-based theories.

Letting go of foundational concepts is difficult, especially for professional physicists. This is understandable since these foundational concepts are the basis of relatively successful theories reinforced by years, often decades, of study, research and models which are often supported by experimental data.

It is also understandable that physicists will evaluate new ideas from within the framework of the theories they use to make sense of reality. Yet a new theory doesn’t need the validation of other even well established and tested theories any more than nature requires science to exist. A theory is required to do three things; describe, explain and predict. Nothing more. Nothing less.

So my advice to all readers is to study QGD for itself and outside the framework of any other theory and to check it for internal consistency and most importantly for consistency with physical reality. The validity of a theory cannot be determined by any theory built of a different axiom set. Theories issued from different axiom sets are mathematically bound to disagree. Thus the validity of a theory can only be determined by observation and experimentation.

The real test of a theory is not how well or elegantly it describes and explains physical systems. The real and only valid test of a theory is in its capacity to make original and testable predictions. We will discuss now QGD predictions relating to fundamental forces and effects, but before we do so, we will go over some basic concepts.

### Some Basic concepts of QGD

Mass and energy are fundamental and intrinsic properties of preons(+), the fundamental particles of matter.

Mass is the property of preons(+) that manifests itself in gravity, which according to QGD is a composite effect of p-gravity (the fundamental force intrinsic to preons(+), and n-gravity (the fundamental force intrinsic to preons(-)), the particles which dimensionalize space. Since preons(+) are fundamental, their mass is the fundamental unit of mass . It follows that the mass of an object, or ** m**, is simply the numbers of preons(+) it contains.

The fundamental unit of energy is the energy of a preon(+). The energy of a preon(+) is that which allows it to leap from one preon(-) to the next on its path, which is the fundamental speed of c. So the energy of a preon(+) is simply its mass multiplied by c that is; 1 * c or simply c.

It follows that the energy of an object is equal to the number the number of preons(+) it contains times c. Thus, as the reader can see, E=mc, naturally follows from the axioms of quantum-geometry dynamics.

That said, it is important to know that E=mc does not describe an equivalence between mass and energy. Mass and energy are two intrinsic and fundamental properties of the preon(+). According to QGD, mass cannot be converted into energy or energy into mass. It follows that what is released during a nuclear reaction is not energy but particles which carry momentum (for a detailed explanation see chapters 8, 9 and 10 of Introduction to Quantum-Geometry Dynamics). The total mass and energy of a system doesn’t change, but absolute value of the momentums of the particles that composes it does.

### Fundamental Forces

One of the main problems with which physicists have been struggling is to develop a theory that can unify quantum mechanics and relativity. A number of candidate theories have emerged over the years; all of which have failed. To be clear, QGD is not a grand unified theory; quite the opposite. QGD shows is that unification of quantum mechanics and general relativity is impossible to achieve.

QGD explains that a grand unified theory is unachievable because the axiom sets of the theories it tries to unify are not only axiomatically incompatible, they are mutually exclusive. That is, there is no way using current theories to develop a complete theory that can explain the four known forces that are the strong and weak nuclear interactions, the electromagnetic force and gravity.

Furthermore, QGD concludes that the main reason the four forces can’t be unified under one theory is that that none of them are fundamental forces. In other words, the strong and weak nuclear interactions, the electromagnetic force and gravity are either composite forces or a combination of composite forces and effects.

QGD predicts the existence of only two fundamental forces, n-gravity and p-gravity, respectively associated with its two fundamental particles, the preons(-) and the preons(+). From the equation that describes their combined effect between any two objects, we can derive solutions that correspond to the strong and the weak nuclear interactions, the electromagnetic effect and gravity. The equation describing the combined effects of n-gravity and p-gravity is:

### Strong Nuclear Force

### Gravity

### Dark Energy

### Electromagnetism

The electromagnetic interaction is a consequence of two effects. The first is the gravitational interaction described by the QGD equation above.

The second effect is a mechanism resulting from the interactions between electrically charged objects and the preonic field (the free preons(+) in quantum-geometrical space) which in proximity to charged particles becomes polarized. The changes in directions and speed of objects submitted to an electromagnetic force is here caused by the exchanges of preons(+) between objects and the preonic field. When objects acquire preons(+) from the preonic field, it takes on their momentums. This affects the net sum of momentums of the objects.

### The Weak Interaction

The weak interaction is caused by the strong gravitational and electromagnetic interactions within nuclei and particles. Weak interactions cause decay when the mass of particles lies outside their island of stability (chapters 8 to 14). Different mechanisms individually or in combination are responsible for all forms of particle decay; the three forms of radioactive decay as well as the observed decay of all composite particles, which according to QGD includes all particles observed in high energy physics experiments.

QGD thus predicts that particle decay is not a probabilistic event, but obeys a *strict causality principle *(chapter 9; events and causality).

For a detailed explanation of the mechanisms of weak interactions please read the relevant chapters of Introduction to Quantum-Geometry Dynamics.

### Dark Matter

The cosmology derived from the axioms of QGD predicts that most of the preons(+) in the Universe are still free and exist in the form of the preonic field. So though individual preons(+) interact weakly, sufficiently large regions of the preonic field interact with massive objects as if they were large physical objects themselves. Solutions of the QGD equation which take into account the preonic field describe the effect we know as dark matter.

### Speed of Gravity

An important prediction, resulting from QGD’s model of quantum-geometrical space is that n-gravity and p-gravity are fundamental interactions and that gravity does not propagate at the speed of light, as is predicted by relativity, but is instantaneous.

To take a classic example; if the Sun were to suddenly disappear, according to general relativity, it would take 8 minutes (the time is takes for light to travel from the sun to the Earth) for the Earth to feel the effect. But according to quantum-geometry dynamics, we would feel the effect instantly.

This would explain the failure of all attempts to detect gravitational waves which should exists if gravity propagates as general relativity predicts.

### Summary of QGD Predictions:

To conclude, below is a summary of the QGD predictions found in this second part of this series.

- There are only two fundamental particles; the preon(-) and the preon(+)
- There are only two fundamental forces; n-gravity and p-gravity
- Space is discrete and emerges from the n-gravity interactions between preons(-)
- Matter is made of bound preons(+), this includes all particles thought to be elementary
- Dark matter is made of the free preons(+) which form the preonic field
- Dark energy is an effect which is observed when the n-gravity component of the QGD gravitational equation exceeds the p-gravity component.
- Gravity is instantaneous

In part 3 of this series, we will discuss the cosmological predictions of QGD.

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