Wednesday, February 12, 2014

QGD Locally Realistic Explanation of Quantum Entanglement Experiments (part 1)

Note that the following article assumes that the reader is familiar with the basic notions about quantum-geometry dynamics.

Those who are familiar with quantum-geometry dynamics know that it excludes quantum entanglement. Yet, as we will show in this article, QGD remains consistent with the results from all experiments which are thought to support quantum entanglement. Not only is QGD consistent with the experimental data of so-called quantum entanglement experiments but, unlike quantum mechanics, precisely explains the mechanisms responsible for the apparent quantum entanglement effect without violating the principle of locality.

In the setup shown in figure 1, which is called a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer, we have a source of light which beam is split in two by a half-silvered mirror. The classical prediction is that 50% of the light will be reflected to the mirror on the top left (path 1) and 50% will be refracted to the mirror at the bottom right (path 2). The light which arrives at the top left mirror will be reflected towards the back side of the half-silver mirror on the top right where it will be split into two beams towards detector 1 and detector 2, each of which should be receiving 50% of the photons coming through path 1 or with 25% of photons emitted by the source.

The photons that follows path 2 (50% of the photons from the source) are reflected by the mirror at the bottom right towards the half-silvered mirror at the top right where it will be split into two beams each having 50% of the photons following path 2 (or 25% of the photons from the source beam). So classical optics predicts that 50% of the photons from the source will reach D1 and the other 50% will each D2. But, see figure 2, experiments show that 100% of the photons from the source reach D2 and none reach D1.

The explanation provided by quantum mechanics, which is similar to that given for the results of double-slit experiments, proposes that the wave function of each individual photon travels both paths and engages in interference at the half-silvered mirror on the top right and that they interfere destructively at D1 and constructively at D2 (a detailed explanation can be found here).

Applying the QGD optics to the setup, we arrive a different and much simpler explanation.

We know from QGD’s description of optics and motion that an electron \displaystyle e_{0}^{-} can absorb a photon {{\gamma }_{0}} only if \displaystyle {{m}_{{{y}_{0}}}}c=x{{m}_{e_{0}^{-}}}. After absorption of a photon the mass of the electron will be increased by the mass of the photon, that is {{m}_{e_{1}^{-}}}={{m}_{e_{0}^{-}}}+{{m}_{{{y}_{0}}}}. And since electrons \displaystyle e_{1}^{-} can only absorb a photon {{\gamma }_{1}} if \displaystyle {{m}_{{{y}_{1}}}}c=x\left( {{m}_{e_{0}^{-}}}+{{m}_{{{y}_{0}}}} \right)  then e_{1}^{-} electrons will reflect {{\gamma }_{0}}photons .

So what happens according to QGD is that photons following path 1 are absorbed by the atomic electrons of the transparent part of the half-silvered mirror at the top right (since the distance from the source is shorter, they reach that part earlier). Since {{m}_{e_{1}^{-}}}>{{m}_{e_{0}^{-}}} and \displaystyle {{m}_{{{y}_{0}}}}c<x{{m}_{e_{1}^{-}}}, all photons which momentum is smaller than \displaystyle {{m}_{{{y}_{1}}}}c will be reflected back by these electrons. So, if the transparent part of the mirror exceeds a minimum thickness, the photons coming in from path 2 going through it will meet e_{1}^{-} electrons along their path and, since which mass {{m}_{e_{1}^{-}}}>{{m}_{{{\gamma }_{0}}}}c, will be reflected by them. (see figure 3, electrons at phase e_{1}^{-} are in yellow area).

As for the photons from path 1 that reach the silvered surface of the top right mirror (figure 4), half will pass through towards D2, half will be reflected back towards their surface of entry. Those last photons will encounter e_{1}^{-}electrons along their path back, but since their momentum of \displaystyle {{m}_{{{\gamma }_{0}}}}c is less the momentum required for absorption by the e_{1}^{-} electrons , \displaystyle {{m}_{{{\gamma }_{0}}}}c<x{{m}_{e_{1}^{-}}}, they will be reflected back towards the half-silvered surface of the mirror where half of these photons will be refracted towards D2 and the other half reflected back towards their surface of entry. This will continue until all photons are directed towards D2.

Now consider the setup shown in figure 5. Here we have 50% of the photons that will reach D3, 25% of the photons that will reach each of D1 and D2.

According to quantum mechanics, the photons moving along path 2 that reach D1 can only do so if the photons moving along path 1 are deflected towards D3. This raises the question: How the photons that reach D1 know that the photons of path 1 were deflected towards D3?

Quantum mechanics’ answer to that question is that the photons from path 1 and path 2 are entangled, a phenomenon known as quantum entanglement, by which a change done to photons on path 1, by a measurement for example, and which instantly affects the photons moving on path 2 even though the photons of path 1 are not in contact with the photons of path 2. And, according to quantum mechanics, it does so instantly and independently of the distance that separate the two groups of photons. If quantum mechanics is correct, that entangled photons be separated by a meter or billions of light-years does make any difference. This explanation of course violates locality, but this violation is essential to quantum mechanics if it is to correctly describe the result of experiments such as the ones we described above and which in turn, as interpreted by quantum mechanics, support the existence of quantum entanglement and non-locality.

That said, QGD optics provides a simpler interpretation of the results. Based on QGD’s explanation of the results from the setup shown figure 1 and figure 2, we understand that if photons in the second setup that move along path 2 will reach D2 simply because, without incoming photons from path 1, the atomic electrons of the transparent material remain in the e_{0}^{-}state. Hence the photons from path 2 that are not reflected within the transparent part of the top right half-silvered mirror.

Thus quantum-geometry dynamics describes and explains the results without quantum-entanglement and without violating locality. That in itself does not mean that QGD better describes reality. It does however offer a much simpler and local realistic explanation. As such, it contradicts Bell’s theorem which implies that no local hidden theory can explain the correlations of such experiments as those described in this article. That said, any number of theories can be made to be consistent with data and thus explain physical phenomena a posteriori. The only valid tests of a theory are the predictions that it makes that are original to it and that can be verified experimentally.

QGD Experimental Predictions of “Non-Locality” Experiments

If QGD’s explanation of the result of the first setup is correct, and since as we explained, the refractive material needs to be of a certain minimum thickness so that any photons from path 2 will be intercepted by an atomic electron with mass {{m}_{e_{1}^{-}}}, then reducing the thickness below a certain value (figure 6) will allow photons from path 2 to reach D1.

The minimum thickness being a number of electrons that exceeds the number of photons arriving from path 2 plus the photons from path 1 that are reflected back towards D1 by the reflecting surface of the top right mirror.

Also implied by QGD’s explanation is that, if the number of photons from path 2 moving through the top left mirror exceeds the number of e_{1}^{-} electrons, then photons from path 2 will reach D1. This means that if the photon density of the source is increased passed a certain value, past the number of electrons which have absorbed photons from the path 1, then photons from path 2 will reach D1. Similarly, photons from path 1 reflected by the silvered side of the mirror will also reach D1. The actual number of photons that will reach is the difference between the number of photons from path 1 and path 2 moving towards D1 and the number of electrons in the e_{1}^{-} state along their paths.

Each articles of this series will examine other experiments understood to support quantum entanglement and non-locality.


If you are interested in knowing more about QGD, I suggested reading earlier articles or the pdf book Introduction to Quantum-Geometry Dynamics.

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